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James W. Loewen (1942-2021)

We mourn the loss of our friend and colleague and remain committed to the work he began.

Race Relations


First encounters were not very racialized, but as soon as Europeans had dominion, “race” emerged to rationalize that advantage.

This curve shows that racism is not innate but changes over time. It is historical. So we can increase it or decrease it, using history as guide.

Finally we are beginning to tell the truth about all three. Photos like this help.

During the Nadir, lynchings went to their all-time high. Even North Dakota outlawed interracial marriage! Towns went sundown across the North.

Three underlying causes worked to moderate the Nadir: independence of former colonies, anti-Nazi sentiment, and black elected leaders in the North.

Above is the symbol of SNCC during the Civil Rights Movement. For a while, the Movement tried to bring into being “the beloved community.” We shall.