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James W. Loewen (1942-2021)

We mourn the loss of our friend and colleague and remain committed to the work he began.

New York

New York

Basic Information

Type of Place
Independent City or Town
Metro Area
Politics c. 1860?
Strongly Democratic
Unions, Organized Labor?
Strong

Sundown Town Status

Confirmed Sundown Town?
Always Biracial
Was there an ordinance?
Don't Know
Sign?
Don’t Know
Year of Greatest Interest
Still Sundown?
Surely Not

Census Information

The available census data from 1860 to the present
Total White Black Asian Native Hispanic Other BHshld
1860
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000 8,008,270 3,576.385 2,129,762 787,047 41,289 2,160,554
2010
2020

Method of Exclusion

  • Unknown

Main Ethnic Group(s)

  • Very Mixed

Group(s) Excluded

Comments

Particular buildings and boroughs had questionable practices, while the city as a whole was always very racially and ethnically mixed.

The Dakota, Bel Nord, and other elegant apartment blocks have parks in their middles. Gans says these are gated communities of sorts and probably kept out blacks for a long time.

Rockaway Beach, NYC: Two black families bought a duplex in 1975; it “was set afire nine times” that year. (see Dorothy K. Newman, et al., Protest, Politics, and Prosperity (NY: Pantheon, 1978), 139, citing Amsterdam News, 3/22/75.)

New York City Resident:

%u201CI suggest that you look at various locations in the southern portion of Staten Island and the Howard Beach and Beach Channel communities in Queens, NY. Although they have recently suffered heavily as a result of the events of September 11, 2001, and the recent plane crash in the Rockaways (also in Queens), the adjacent neighborhoods of Belle Harbor and Breezy Point would be interesting inclusions to your book. These areas are peopled primarily by ethnic Americans of Irish and Italian descent.%u201D

New York City Historian:

%u201CStuyvesant Town and Parkchester in New York City, built with a lot of public funds in the 1940s and originally at least all white. Stuyvesant Town was an immense project with a lot of federal and city money poured into it, under Mayor LaGuardia, generally a liberal though not re this.%u201D