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James W. Loewen (1942-2021)

We mourn the loss of our friend and colleague and remain committed to the work he began.

Chicago

Illinois

Basic Information

Type of Place
Independent City or Town
Metro Area
Politics c. 1860?
Unions, Organized Labor?

Sundown Town Status

Confirmed Sundown Town?
Unlikely
Was there an ordinance?
Sign?
Year of Greatest Interest
Still Sundown?

Census Information

The available census data from 1860 to the present
Total White Black Asian Native Hispanic Other BHshld
1860
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020

Method of Exclusion

Main Ethnic Group(s)

Group(s) Excluded

Comments

In 1921, “the Chicago Real Estate Board voted unanimously to expel any member who rented or sold property on a white block to black people. There was a tacit understanding that the rule did not apply in the transitional blocks bordering the ghetto.”
Anti-Semitism because “those kike real-estate bastards” would “sell to niggers.”
“For the suburbs, which formed an almost lily-white ring around the city, restriction [through covenants] was a status symbol as much as a safety measure. But a few suburbs did have a “Negro problem.” Evanston and Waukegan … and Maywood, west of the city, had significant Negro populations.” So they used covenants, especially in Maywood.

Recent polls taken are as follows:
If a black family moved next door, [asked only of families with no blacks already on their block]
object strongly 18%
object moderately 18%
not object at all 64%

“Many white people feel that they should have a right to keep blacks out of their neighborhood if they want to.”
agree completely 20.5%
agree partially 25
neutral 6
disagree partially 24
disagree completely 24

“In Chicago 167 homes established by Negroes in white neighborhoods were bombed during the two years immediately following the end of the Second World War, killing four persons, permanently crippling eight, and injuring scores of others.”

“In July [17] 1976, when about 100 black and white demonstrators marched for open housing in a Chicago neighborhood, a crowd of 1,000 angry whites lined the streets to jeer ‘go home, niggers’ and to hurl rocks, bricks, and bottles.”